Christianity: the 900's
An Overview: What happened in this century?
- This century witnessed two extremes: the low point in the papacy at the beginning and middle and a subsequent rise of the spiritual authority of the monastery at Cluny and Cluniac Reform at the end.
**Notice the short reign of popes in this century. Also notice the popes who were elected at a young age or were killed in office.
|900-903||Benedict IV was pope.|
|903||Leo V elected pope: pope for 30 days. He was murdered, possibly strangled by Christopher, a man who also claimed to be pope, or on orders of Sergius III, who became pope.|
|904-11||The pontificate of Pope Sergius III. He is considered to be the beginning of the “pornocracy,” that period of great decline in the moral authority of the popes. The record of his rule contains many inconsistencies, which would lead one to conclude that at the very least it was a tumultuous time.|
|910||The Benedictine Abbey at Cluny was founded. Berno was placed in charge of the Abbey and he gave the Benedictine monks a more strict form. This was an attempt to reform Benedictine monasticism. One innovation was to develop offshoots of the main Abbey yet each was connected to the Abbey; previously Benedictine monasteries had been independent. The Cluny reform grew quickly in the latter half of this century and into the next century as new monasteries were founded and existing monasteries joined the movement. By the early 1100s, Cluny was a major center of Christianity in Europe, second only to Rome, and had 314 monasteries.
The Cluny Reform grew quickly and concurrently with the downgrading of the papacy in this century. In some aspects, the Cluny Reform provided that which the papacy often did not in this century: a moral grounding and spiritual leadership.
|911-913||Reign of Pope Anastasius III; pope for 2 years.|
|913-914||Reign of Pope Lando; pope for 1 year.|
|914-928||Reign of Pope John X. He was one of the first popes to lead an army into battle, in 916. He was eventually placed in prison due to a political situation involving a noble family and died in prison.|
|928||Reign of Pope Leo VI; pope for less than 1 year.|
|929-931||Reign of Pope Stephen VII; pope for 3 years.|
|931-935||Reign of Pope John XI. He became pope when he was around 20 years old.|
|936-939||Reign of Pope Leo VII; pope for 4 years.|
|939-942||Reign of Pope Stephen VIII; pope for 4 years.|
|942-946||Reign of Pope Marinus II; pope for 4 years.|
|946-955||Reign of Pope Agapetus II. His pontificate last longer than many other popes in this time period; he is considered a rare "good" pope during this century, as opposed to others who did not last long because of the intrigues of their offices.|
|955-964||Reign of Pope John XII. He became pope at 18 years of age. During his pontificate he committed adultery so often that his palace was called a "whorehouse." He was accused of killing a subdeacon. The Emporer Otto I deposed John XII, but before he could find him, John died.|
|962||St. Bernard opens a hospice (place for travelers) in the Alps. Eventually the St. Bernard dog would be used to rescue travelers who became lost in the snow. Read more here.|
|964||Reign of Pope Benedict V; pope for 1 year. The Emperor Otto I did not approve of his papacy, so he was demoted to a deacon and died in 966.|
|964-965||Reign of Leo VIII; pope for 1 year.|
|965-972||Reign of Pope John XIII. During his pontificate, he became so disliked that he was banished from from Rome fom 965-966.|
|973-974||Reign of Pope Benedict VI; pope for 1 year. He was strangled to death.|
|974-983||Reign of Pope Benedict VII. His pontificate is considered to be a successful one with no intrigue.|
|983-984||Reign of Pope John XIV; pope for 1 year. He was either starved to death or poisoned while in prison.|
|985-996||Reign of Pope John XV. His pontificate is considered to be a successful one with no intrigue. See entry below.|
|993||The first official canonization of a saint by the Catholic Church was performed when Ulrich of Augsburg was made a saint by Pope John XV. Prior to this act, individual bishops had canonized saints, but, since this led to confusion, the practice began to be institutionalized in the Catholic Church. (This does not mean that no saint comes from a time prior to 993, for many canonizations which still stand occurred prior to 993.) In 1170 Pope Alexander III declared that only the Catholic Church could declare someone a saint.|
|996-999||Reign of Pope Gregory V. His pontificate is considered to be a successful one with no intrigue.|
|999||By the end of the century, the papacy began to regain its moral footing. The Cluny Reform continued to grow in size and influence.|
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