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Christianity: the 500's

An Overview: What happened in this century?

Timeline

Early 500s Dionysius Exiguus (d. c. 550) introduced the method of dating years. He began with year one as the year of Jesus' birth. Later archaeologists realized that he was wrong by 4-7 years, which makes the birth of Jesus between 4-7 BC.
527 Justinian I became the Roman Emperor. He reconquered North Africa and Italy and built many basilicas. (See the year 537 below.)
532 Boniface II died and John II became Pope the next year. He was the first pope to change his name, Mercurius being his birth name and being the name of a pagan god.
537 Hagia Sophia consecrated. Known as "Holy Wisdom" (Greek "Hagia Sophia"; Latin "Sancta Sophia"), this church was the finest example of Byzantine architecture and was the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople for almost 1000 years. Constantinople was conquered by Muslims in 1453 and it was converted to a mosque. In 1935 it became a museum.
550 Benedict of Nursia died. He is known as the "Father of Western Monasticism." During his lifetime he established twelve monasteries with twelve monks apiece. He also wrote a Rule (c. 540), which contains regulations for maintaining a monastery and the monastic life; this Rule became exceedingly popular. To read one of Benedict's chapters, the one on living a holy life, go here.
553 Council of Constantinople II: the third of the Ecumenical Councils This Council was called to combat three different individuals, all of whom were accused of Nestorianism: Theodore of Mopsuestia (352-428), Theodoret (393-466), and against the letter of Ibas (Bishop of Edessa from 435-457)
565 Justinian I died.
570 Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born in Mecca in present-day Saudi Arabia.
589 At the Third Council of Toledo in this year, the Filioque clause was added to the Nicene Creed.
  • "Filioque" means "and the Son" in Latin and was added after "the Holy Ghost proceeds . . . from the Father" so that the Holy Spirit is seen to have had a double procession (from the Father and the Son) instead of a single procession.
  • This was a major point of contention between Western and Eastern Christianity, with the West holding to double procession and the East holding to single procession. The Eastern churches argued that this formula was not agreed to at the Third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Constantinople in 381.
590 Pope Pelagius II died and Gregory I became Pope. He became the second pope known as "the Great." The first was Leo I who died in 461.
  • During his pontificate, Rome regained stability.
  • He also created the music which would bear his name, Gregorian chants.
  • [Personal note, Protestant scholars are divided over whether Leo I was the first pope or if it was Gregory I. I believe it was Gregory. ("Pope" in the sense people think of today when you say "pope.")]
  • Gregory did not desire the papacy, to learn more about his life, click here.
596 Pope Gregory I sends Augustine (of Canterbury) to England to reestablish Christianity. To learn more about Augustine's mission, and why he settled in Canterbury, click here.

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